The fundamental problems for data mining and statistical analysis are:

Whether distributions of two samples are distinct?

Whether two random variables are dependent?

Two-sample test, which is designed to solve the first problem, is very important in medicine, psychology, biology and so on. For instance, we want to know whether lifespan of male and female is different. Thus, we collect lifetime data, and try to figure out whether ages in two samples are identically distributed. As the following images shown, if distribution of life span in two groups look like the left one, we conclude that lifetime are not identically distributed. But for the right one, it indicates that they are most likely to be identically distributed.

Test of independence, which is designed to solve the other problem, is also very essential. As the following images shown, there is a strong linear relation with Y and X1, while X2 seems to have nothing to do with Y. So X1 should be taken into account and added in to the regression model for Y, or should be studied carefully in order to confirm the correlation mechanism with Y.

**Ball** package provides solution for independence
test, two-sample test or even K-sample test. Moreover, a generic
non-parametric sure independence screening procedure also implemented to
deal with ultra high dimensional data.

The three core functions are:

**bd.test**: examine whether \(K(K \geq 2)\) univariate or multivariate distributions are identical.**bcov.test**: test whether univariate or multivariate variables are related to each other.**bcorsis**: carry out sure independence screening procedure to pick out the variables potentially related to response.

To install the Ball R package from CRAN, just run:

`install.packages("Ball")`

To install the development version from GitHub, run:

```
library(devtools)
install_github("Mamba413/Ball", build_vignettes = TRUE)
```

*Windows* user will need to install Rtools
first.

In this example, we generate two normal random variables with different location parameter: \[X \sim N(0,1), Y \sim N(1, 1)\]

```
<- rnorm(50)
x <- rnorm(50, mean = 1)
y # plot(density(x), xlim = c(-5, 5))
# lines(density(y), col = 'red')
```

We use **bd.test** to perform the two-sample test to
determine whether two samples come from the same distribution.

`bd.test(x = x, y = y)`

```
#
# 2-sample Ball Divergence Test (Permutation)
#
# data: x and y
# number of observations = 100, group sizes: 50 50
# replicates = 99, weight: constant
# bd.constant = 0.092215, p-value = 0.01
# alternative hypothesis: distributions of samples are distinct
```

The result of **bd.test** is that *p*-value <
0.05, which means to reject the null hypothesis, and conclude that two
samples are come from different distribution. Consequently, the
hypothesis test result is concordant to data generation mechanism.

In this example, we will demonstrate how to perform a test of whether two multivariate distributions are identical. We generate two random samples of size 50, which are sampled from two different multivariate normal distributions: \[X \sim N(\mu_{X},I_{2 \times 2}), Y \sim N(\mu_{Y}, I_{2 \times 2})\] \[\mu_{X} = (0,0), \mu_{Y} = (1,1)\]

```
<- matrix(rnorm(100), nrow = 50, ncol = 2)
x <- matrix(rnorm(100, mean = 3), nrow = 50, ncol = 2) y
```

We use **bd.test** to test whether two multivariate
random samples are identically distributed.

`bd.test(x = x, y = y)`

```
#
# 2-sample Ball Divergence Test (Permutation)
#
# data: x and y
# number of observations = 100, group sizes: 50 50
# replicates = 99, weight: constant
# bd.constant = 0.63695, p-value = 0.01
# alternative hypothesis: distributions of samples are distinct
```

The result of **bd.test** is that *p*-value <
0.05, so we conclude that two samples are not identically
distributed.

In this example, we will use the “W-shape” data from WIKI
to demonstrate how to perform univariate test of independence with
**bcov.test** .

We generate a dataset containing 50 samples.

```
# generate random perturbation:
<- runif(50, min = -0.3, max = 0.3)
noise <- runif(50, 0, 4*pi)
x <- cos(x) + noise
y # plot(x, y)
```

Obviously, \(X\) is related to \(Y\), but the relationship is non-linear. We
use **bcov.test** to perform the test of independence
between \(X\) and \(Y\).

`bcov.test(x = x, y = y)`

```
#
# Ball Covariance test of independence (Permutation)
#
# data: x and y
# number of observations = 50
# replicates = 99, weight: constant
# bcov.constant = 0.001948, p-value = 0.01
# alternative hypothesis: random variables are dependent
```

The result of **bcov.test** is that *p*-value
< 0.05, so we conclude that \(X\)
and \(Y\) are not independent, which
means there is some kind of correlation between X and Y.

For multivariate independence test, we will demonstrate the usage of
**bcov.test** with the following example: \(X=(x_{1}, x_{2})\) come from the bivariate
normal distribution. The relation between \(Y\) and \(X\) is:

\[Y=2\sin(x_{1} + x_{2})+ \epsilon, \quad
\epsilon \sim U(-0.1, 0.1)\]

```
<- matrix(runif(50 * 2, -pi, pi), nrow = 50, ncol = 2)
x <- runif(50, min = -0.1, max = 0.1)
noise <- 2 * sin(x[,1] + x[,2]) + noise y
```

We use **bcov.test** to perform multivariate
independence test:

`bcov.test(x = x, y = y, weight = "prob")`

```
#
# Ball Covariance test of independence (Permutation)
#
# data: x and y
# number of observations = 50
# replicates = 99, weight: probability
# bcov.probability = 0.038211, p-value = 0.01
# alternative hypothesis: random variables are dependent
```

The result of **bcov.test** is that *p*-value
< 0.05, so we conclude that multivariate random variable \(X\) and \(Y\) are associated.

The features below have been implemented to help you analyse diverse and complicated real data.

During the scientific research, we always have to deal with
Non-Hilbert space data. However, the traditional statistical inference
methods usually depend on some assumptions, which are not able to
perform statistical inference on this kind of data directly. Whereas
ball divergence doesn’t depend on the assumptions needed in traditional
statistical inference method, and it’s able to perform two-sample test
for data from Non-Hilbert space. We will demonstrate how to use
**Ball** package to perform statistical inference for data
from Non-Hilbert space with three examples:

```
# load data:
data("bdvmf")
```

The distribution of the data is shown in the following image:

In the image, the black dots (\(X\)) and red dots (\(Y\)) respectively represent two group of simulated data with different distributions. The distributions are denoted by: \[X \sim M(\mu_{X}, \kappa), Y \sim M(\mu_{Y}, \kappa)\] Where \(M\) denotes von Mises-Fisher distribution, \(\mu_{X} = (1, 0, 0), \mu_{Y} = (1, 1, 1)\) are the orientation parameter of von Mises-Fisher distribution, \(\kappa = 3\) denotes aggregation parameter.

We can tell from the image that, red dots and black dots are not identically distributed. However, it is a tough task for the traditional statistical method to distinguish distribution because it is not a conventional data in Hilbert space. Fortunately, since the computation for sample version of ball divergence (ball covariance) only involves calculate distance matrix and counting the number of samples located in a ball, we can obtain empirical ball divergence so long as we can define the distance metric between observations. Therefore, ball divergence still work for this example.

We apply ball divergence to this data by carrying out the following step. First, we calculate the geodesic distance matrix of the data, which have been implemented in function . Later, we pass the distance matrix to arguments and let , , and . The detailed solution is demonstrated below:

```
# calculate geodesic distance between samples:
<- nhdist(bdvmf[["x"]], method = "geodesic")
dx # sample sizes in each group: 150, 150
# Two-Sample Test based on BD :
bd.test(x = dx, size = c(150, 150), num.permutations = 99, distance = TRUE)
```

```
#
# 2-sample Ball Divergence Test (Permutation)
#
# data: dx
# number of observations = 300, group sizes: 150 150
# replicates = 99, weight: constant
# bd.constant = 0.14483, p-value = 0.01
# alternative hypothesis: distributions of samples are distinct
```

In this example, we firstly calculate the geodesic distance matrix
using **nhdist** function in *Ball* package. Then,
pass *dx* to arguments *x* and set *distance =
TRUE* to indicate that the *x* parameter is a distance
matrix. Meanwhile, we set the size of each sample *size = c(150,
150)* and set the replication times *num.permutations = 99*.
The result is that *p*-value < 0.05, which means that red dots
and black dots are not identically distributed.

Based on Macaques data provided by dryden, scientists want to figure
out whether there are differences in the shape of skull between Macaques
of different genders. In a similar way, we can calculate the distance
matrix of the data and transform this problem into two-sample test that
can be solved by BD. Riemann shape distance is always used to describe
the distance between shape data. By setting *method = “riemann”*
in the **nhdist** function, we are able to calculate the
riemann shape distance between shape data. The detailed procedure is
demonstrated below:

```
# load data:
data("macaques")
# number of femala and male Macaca fascicularis:
# table(macaques[["group"]]) # f: 9; m: 9
# calculate Riemannian shape distance matrix:
<- nhdist(macaques[["x"]], method = "riemann")
dx # hypothesis test with BD:
bd.test(x = dx, num.permutations = 99, size = c(9, 9), distance = TRUE)
```

```
#
# 2-sample Ball Divergence Test (Permutation)
#
# data: dx
# number of observations = 18, group sizes: 9 9
# replicates = 99, weight: constant
# bd.constant = 0.1922, p-value = 0.03
# alternative hypothesis: distributions of samples are distinct
```

*p*-value is under 0.05, which means the skull shape differs
between male macaques and female macaques.

**bcov.test** is related to calculating the distance
between samples of two multivariate random variables. Therefore, we can
examine independence assumption by employing **bcov.test**
to non-Hilbert space real data so long as we obtain the distance matrix
of the samples.

We take a data in the Book, **The Statistical Analysis of
Compositional Data**, as an example to demonstrate how to use
**bcov.test** to determine the dependence of non-Hilbert
space data. Scientists collect Sand, silt and clay compositions of 39
sediment samples of different water depth in an Arctic lake. They want
to figure out whether the compositions of sediment samples of different
water depth are identical or not. To achieve the goal, we use
**bcov.test** to perform the test of independence. The
detailed procedure is demonstrated below:

```
data("ArcticLake")
# Distance matrix between y:
<- nhdist(ArcticLake[["x"]], method = "compositional")
dy # Distance matrix between x:
<- dist(ArcticLake[["depth"]])
dx # hypothesis test with BCov:
bcov.test(x = dx, y = dy, num.permutations = 99, distance = TRUE)
```

```
#
# Ball Covariance test of independence (Permutation)
#
# data: dx and dy
# number of observations = 39
# replicates = 99, weight: constant
# bcov.constant = 0.0083848, p-value = 0.01
# alternative hypothesis: random variables are dependent
```

We first calculate the distance matrix *dy* and *dx*.
Then, we pass *dx* to arguments *x*, *dy* to
arguments *y*, and set the replication times *num.permutations
= 99*, *distance = TRUE* to indicate that the *x* and
*y* parameters are distance matrices.

The result shows that *p*-value is less than 0.05, an usual
significance level, so we conclude that the compositions of sediment is
associated with the water depth.

In the example above, we use the square root transformed data to
calculate the geodesic distance as a measurement of the difference
between different compositions of sediment samples (*Dy*).
Meanwhile, we use euclidean distance to measure the difference of
different water depth (*Dx*). For different data, we can use
different measurements to cope with the different features in data.

**bd.test** is also applicable for testing of multiple
samples. We generate three random normal samples of size 50, which are
sampled from the same normal distribution. As an example, we use
**bd.test** to test whether these samples are identically
distributed.

```
<- 150
n bd.test(rnorm(n), size = rep(50, 3))
```

```
#
# 3-sample Ball Divergence Test (Permutation)
#
# data: rnorm(n)
# number of observations = 150, group sizes: 50 50 50
# replicates = 99, weight: constant, kbd.type: sum
# kbd.sum.constant = 0.032714, p-value = 0.59
# alternative hypothesis: distributions of samples are distinct
```

As the result shown, *p*-value>0.05, which means we can’t
reject the null hypothesis.

We can also utilize **bd.test** to deal with \(K\)-Sample problem in non-Hilbert space
following the aforementioned procedure. At the same time, remember to
assign size vector to parameter *size* arguments and set
*distance = TRUE*.

Pan et. al(2017) show that the weighted ball covariance based independence test is statistical consistent against all dependence alternatives without any moment conditions and some times superior to standard version of ball covariance.

We have been implemented weighted ball covariance test in
**Ball** package and we can employ it to data analysis by
just setting *weight = TRUE* in **bcov.test**. Take
*ArcticLake* data as example:

```
data("ArcticLake")
<- nhdist(ArcticLake[["x"]], method = "compositional")
Dy <- dist(ArcticLake[["depth"]])
Dx # hypothesis test with weighted BCov:
bcov.test(x = Dx, y = Dy, num.permutations = 99,
distance = TRUE, weight = "constant")
```

```
#
# Ball Covariance test of independence (Permutation)
#
# data: Dx and Dy
# number of observations = 39
# replicates = 99, weight: constant
# bcov.constant = 0.0083848, p-value = 0.01
# alternative hypothesis: random variables are dependent
```

Apart from the relationships between two random variables, another important dependence concept for a set of variables is mutual (or joint) independence, which says that any two disjoint subsets of variables are independent from each other. For instance, we know to investigate whether air temperature, soil temperature, humidity, wind and evaporation are correlated.

It is natural to extend ball covariance to measure mutual
independence between \(K\) random
variables.
More importantly, Mutual independence test based on ball covariance have
been implemented in **Ball** package. We give two simply
example in the following to demonstrate its usage.

The first example, \(X, \epsilon_{1}, \epsilon_{2}\) are independent from the standard normal distribution \(N(0,1)\), and \[Y = \max(X, 0) + \epsilon_{1}, \; Z = \min(X, 0) + \epsilon_{2}\]

```
<- rnorm(50)
x <- (x > 0) * x + rnorm(50)
y <- (x <= 0) * x + rnorm(50)
z <- list(x, y, z) example1
```

The Second example, \(W, X, Y, Z\) are connected by a latent random variable \(H \sim N(0,1)\), and \[W = H^{2}; X = |H|, Y = min(H, 0)\] \[Z = (Z_{1}, Z_{2}), Z_{1}=I(H<0.5)H, Z_{2}=I(H>-0.5)H\]

```
<- rnorm(50)
h <- (h)^2
w <- abs(h)
x <- h * (h < 0)
y <- h * (h < 0.5)
z1 <- h * (h > -0.5)
z2 <- cbind(z1, z2)
z <- list(w, x, y, z) example2
```

We bind these data to list *example1* and *example2*
and pass them to arguments *x* in **bcov.test** to
carry out ball covariance mutual independence test.

`bcov.test(x = example1, num.permutations = 199)`

```
#
# Ball Covariance test of mutual independence (Permutation)
#
# data: example1
# number of observations = 50
# replicates = 199, weight: constant
# bcov.constant = 0.0016909, p-value = 0.01
# alternative hypothesis: random variables are dependent
```

`bcov.test(x = example2, num.permutations = 199)`

```
#
# Ball Covariance test of mutual independence (Permutation)
#
# data: example2
# number of observations = 50
# replicates = 199, weight: constant
# bcov.constant = 0.038425, p-value = 0.005
# alternative hypothesis: random variables are dependent
```

The hypothesis test result for two examples show that
*p*-value < 0.05, coinciding with the simulation setting.

Recent technological advances have made it possible to collect ultra high-dimensional data. A common feature of these data is that the number of variables \(p\) is generally much larger than sample sizes \(n\). For instance, the number of gene expression profiles is in the order of tens of thousands while the number of patient samples is in the order of tens or hundreds. However, traditional variable selection algorithms such as LASSO, SCAD may not perform well due to the statistical inaccuracy, and algorithmic instability.

A new framework, sure independence screening (SIS), was proposed to tackle the challenges above. SIS tries to filtering out the features that have marginal correlation with the response, hence effectively reducing the dimensionality \(p\) to a moderate scale so that performing statistical algorithm is feasible.

BCor-SIS, a generic non-parametric sure independence screening procedure based on ball correlation, is able to pick out explanatory variables related to response. The linear, non-linear or linear interaction effect relationship can be captured by BCor-SIS even though data is heavy tail or existing outliers. More importantly, BCor-SIS is able to retain all of the important features in the model with probability tending to 1 under mild conditions.

In this example, we will utilize **bcorsis** function to
carry out BCor-SIS procedure. We generate 150 high dimensional instances
with 3000 independent standard gaussian explanatory variables \(X\) and univariate response variable \(Y\). The relation between \(Y\) and \(X\) is:

\[Y=3 X_{1} + 5 X_{3}^{2} + \epsilon, \quad
\epsilon \sim N(0, 1)\]

```
set.seed(1)
<- 150
n <- 3000
p <- matrix(rnorm(n * p), nrow = n)
x <- rnorm(n)
noise <- 3*x[, 1] + 5*(x[, 3])^2 + noise y
```

We perform BCor-SIS procedure and display the top 5 variables index selected by BCor-SIS.

```
<- bcorsis(y = y, x = x)
res head(res[[1]], n = 5)
```

`# [1] 3 1 1601 20 429`

The **bcorsis** result shows that the first and the
third variable are the two most important variables in 3000 explanatory
variables which is consistent to simulation settings.

Survival analysis is a commonly used method for the analysis of censored data such as biological death and mechanical failure, which is usually subject to censoring. The main goal of survival analysis is to study the dependence of the survival time \(T\) on covariate variables \(X, X \in R^{p}\).

With the remarkable development of modern technology, a huge amount of covariate information such as microarray and SNP data are collected. Consequently, SIS procedure designed for censored survival data is in need. Pan et al(2017) proposed a extend BCor-SIS procedure which is able to selected the significant variables for censored data.

We implement BCor-SIS procedure for survival data in
**Ball** package and use a publicly lung cancer genomic
data from the Chemores Cohort Study to demonstrate its usage. The data
outcome was the “Disease-Free Survival Time”. Patients were followed
until the first relapse occurred or administrative censoring. In this
genomic dataset, the expression levels of mRNA, miRNA as well as
clinical variables from the 123 samples were included. Moreover, this
dataset include 944 biological covariates and 1056 artificial standard
gaussian variables which are independence with response. We employ
extension of Bcor-SIS on this data to hunt for efficient covariates and
demonstrate detailed procedure in the following.

```
<- bcorsis(x = genlung[["covariate"]],
result y = genlung[["survival"]],
d = "small", method = "survival")
<- colnames(genlung[["covariate"]])[result[["ix"]]]
top_gene head(top_gene, n = 1)
```

`# [1] "hsa.miR.564"`

We first pass covariates and censored information to arugments
*x* and *y*, and set the *method = “survival”* to
indicate that the *y* should be considered as a survival status
containing event time and censored status. BCor-SIS asserts that
*hsa.miR.564*, corresponding to gene *MIR564*, is strongly
relevant to disease-free survival status. The conclusion is highly
coincident with the statement in other public literature.