lsmeans: Least-Squares Means

Obtain least-squares means for linear, generalized linear, and mixed models. Compute contrasts or linear functions of least-squares means, and comparisons of slopes. Plots and compact letter displays. Least-squares means were proposed in Harvey, W (1960) "Least-squares analysis of data with unequal subclass numbers", Tech Report ARS-20-8, USDA National Agricultural Library, and discussed further in Searle, Speed, and Milliken (1980) "Population marginal means in the linear model: An alternative to least squares means", The American Statistician 34(4), 216-221 <doi:10.1080/00031305.1980.10483031>. NOTE: lsmeans now relies primarily on code in the 'emmeans' package. 'lsmeans' will be archived in the near future.

Version: 2.30-0
Depends: emmeans (≥ 1.3), methods, R (≥ 3.2)
Published: 2018-11-02
Author: Russell Lenth [aut, cre, cph]
Maintainer: Russell Lenth <russell-lenth at>
License: GPL-2 | GPL-3
NeedsCompilation: no
Citation: lsmeans citation info
Materials: README NEWS
In views: Survival
CRAN checks: lsmeans results


Reference manual: lsmeans.pdf


Package source: lsmeans_2.30-0.tar.gz
Windows binaries: r-devel:, r-release:, r-oldrel:
macOS binaries: r-release (arm64): lsmeans_2.30-0.tgz, r-oldrel (arm64): lsmeans_2.30-0.tgz, r-release (x86_64): lsmeans_2.30-0.tgz, r-oldrel (x86_64): lsmeans_2.30-0.tgz
Old sources: lsmeans archive

Reverse dependencies:

Reverse imports: StroupGLMM
Reverse suggests: broom


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